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Confucius, Konfuzius,   Buddhism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Confucius

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Buddh

This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice).

The name Confucius is a Jesuit romanization of Kong Fuzi, literally meaning Master Kong. (Traditionally September 28 551 BCE479 BCE). Confucius was a famous thinker and social philosopher of China, whose teachings have deeply influenced East Asia. Living in the Spring and Autumn period, he was convinced of his ability to restore the world's order, and failed. After much travelling around China to promote his ideas among rulers, he eventually became involved in teaching disciples. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines such as Legalism or Taoism during the Han dynasty. Used since then as the imperial orthodoxy, Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a vast and complete philosophical system known in the West as Confucianism. They were introduced to Europe by the Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to romanize the name as "Confucius".

The Analects is a short collection of his discussions with disciples, compiled posthumously. It contains an overview of his teachings.

 
 
Buddhism , Buddhimus  Buddhist :        
           
Buddhism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
 
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in what is now the border region of Northern India and Nepal between 563 and 483 BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death. It continued to spread into Central, Southeast, East Asia, and Eastern Europe over the next two millennia.

There is controversy among scholars of religion concerning whether Buddhism constitutes a religion, discussions which closely follow the problem of "what is religion?" within religious studies. With approximately 708 million followers, Buddhism is a major movement. Its adherents are called Buddhists. Buddhism is usually divided into two main branches: Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. The followers of Theravada Buddhism take the scriptures known as the "Pali suttas, vinaya and abhidhamma" (the Tipitaka/ Tripitaka) as normative and authoritative; the followers of Mahayana Buddhism base themselves chiefly on the "Mahayana sutras" (sutra/ sutta is generally a scripture in which the Buddha himself gives instruction), as well as on various versions of the vinaya. Whereas the Theravadins (followers of Theravada Buddhism) adhere solely to the Pali suttas and their commentaries, the adherents of Mahayana accept both the suttas and the Mahayana sutras as authentic and valid teachings of the Buddha, aimed at different types of person and different levels of spiritual penetration. For the Theravadins, the Mahayana sutras are deviant works of poetic fiction, not issuing from the Buddha himself; for the Mahayanists, the Pali suttas (or "agamas", as such scriptures are also known) do indeed contain basic, foundational (or provisional) teachings of the Buddha, while for those same Mahayanists the Mahayana sutras articulate the Buddha's higher, advanced and deeper doctrines, reserved for the more aspirational Bodhisattvas. Hence the name Mahayana, lit, the Greater Vehicle, which has room for both the general masses of sentient beings and those more developed. Some Mahayanists irreverently refer to Theravada as Hinayana, lit, the Lesser Vehicle. This term is now widely seen as either inaccurate or derogatory, although it does actually appear in the famous Mahayana scripture, the Lotus Sutra (amongst others). Other adherents of Mahayana use the term Hinayana in a respectful way referring to several historical Hinayana schools that may or may not include the currently existing Theravada.

 

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